Rosacea: An Introduction

Excipients of Topical Formulations

The topical formulations of the invention can comprise pharmaceutically acceptable excipients such as those listed in REMINGTON: THE SCIENCE AND PRACTICE OF PHARMACY 866-885(Alfonso R. Gennaro ed. 19th ed. 1995; Ghosh, T. K.; et al. TRANSDERMAL AND TOPICAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS (1997), hereby incorporated herein by reference, including, but not limited to, protectives, adsorbents, demulcents, emollients, preservatives, antioxidants, moisturizers, buffering agents, solubilizing agents, skin-penetration agents, and surfactants.

Suitable protectives and adsorbents include, but are not limited to, dusting powders, zinc sterate, collodion, dimethicone, silicones, zinc carbonate, aloe vera gel and other aloe products, vitamin E oil, allatoin, glycerin, petrolatum, and zinc oxide.

Suitable demulcents include, but are not limited to, benzoin, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, and polyvinyl alcohol.

Suitable emollients include, but are not limited to, animal and vegetable fats and oils, myristyl alcohol, alum, and aluminum acetate.

Suitable preservatives include, but are not limited to, quaternary ammonium compounds, such as benzalkonium chloride, benzethonium chloride, cetrimide, dequalinium chloride, and cetylpyridinium chloride; mercurial agents, such as phenylmercuric nitrate, phenylmercuric acetate, and thimerosal; alcoholic agents, for example, chlorobutanol, phenylethyl alcohol, and benzyl alcohol; antibacterial esters, for example, esters of parahydroxybenzoic acid; and other anti-microbial agents such as chlorhexidine, chlorocresol, benzoic acid and polymyxin.

Chlorine dioxide (ClO.sub.2), preferably, stabilized chlorine dioxide, is a preferred preservative for use with topical formulations of the invention. The term "stabilized chlorine dioxide" is well known in the industry and by those skilled in the art. Stabilized chlorine dioxide includes one or more chlorine dioxide precursors such as one or more chlorine dioxide-containing complexes and/or one or more chlorite-containing components and/or one or more other entities capable of decomposing or being decomposed in an aqueous medium to form chlorine dioxide. U.S. Pat. No. 5,424,078 (issued Jun. 13, 1995), hereby incorporated herein by reference, discloses a form of stabilized chlorine dioxide and a method for producing same, which can be used as a preservative for aqueous ophthalmic solutions and is useful in topical formulations of the invention. The manufacture or production of certain stabilized chlorine dioxide products is described in U.S. Pat. No. 3,278,447, hereby incorporated herein by reference. A commercially available stabilized chlorine dioxide which can be utilized in the practice of the present invention is the proprietary stabilized chlorine dioxide of BioCide International, Inc. of Norman, OK, sold under the trademark Purogene.TM. or Purite.TM.. Other suitable stabilized chlorine dioxide products include that sold under the trademark DuraKlor by Rio Linda Chemical Company, Inc., and that sold under the trademark Antheium Dioxide by International Dioxide, Inc.

Suitable antioxidants include, but are not limited to, ascorbic acid and its esters, sodium bisulfite, butylated hydroxytoluene, butylated hydroxyanisole, tocopherols, and chelating agents like EDTA and citric acid.

Suitable moisturizers include, but are not limited to, glycerin, sorbitol, polyethylene glycols, urea, and propylene glycol.

Suitable buffering agents for use with the invention include, but are not limited to, acetate buffers, citrate buffers, phosphate buffers, lactic acid buffers, and borate buffers.

Suitable solubilizing agents include, but are not limited to, quaternary ammonium chlorides, cyclodextrins, benzyl benzoate, lecithin, and polysorbates.

Suitable skin-penetration agents include, but are not limited to, ethyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, octylphenylpolyethylene glycol, oleic acid, polyethylene glycol 400, propylene glycol, N-decylmethylsulfoxide, fatty acid esters (e.g., isopropyl myristate, methyl laurate, glycerol monooleate, and propylene glycol monooleate); and N-methylpyrrolidone.

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